龐大的馬塞拉液化天然氣項目將比這個位於東加里曼丹的項目更大。 相片:AFP/Olivia Rondonuwu

三年前,印尼總統維多多(Joko Widodo )選擇將印尼東部的馬塞拉大型天然氣項目在陸上進行加工,引發了極大的爭議。該項目是日本國際石油開發公司與荷蘭皇家殼牌合資開發,各方現時正商討可接受的開發計劃。亞洲時報(Asiatimes.com)報導

參與合作的各方尚未公布具體細節,他們最初堅持建設浮式液化天然氣平台,但改變原有方案的進展十分緩慢。因此引發了印尼國內反對派政客質疑這個項目拖延過久。

一位高層政府官員表示:「我們已經全部同意陸上開發,對此已經沒有異議。」他透露,液化天然氣加工廠擴建940萬噸產能的建設將於2021-22年動工。

印尼海洋事務統籌部部長Luhut Pandjaitan坦言,政府仍需為這個項目在塔寧巴爾群島的延德納島徵地約1,400公頃。這裏距離雅加達大約2,700公里,位於阿拉弗拉海水域。

延德納島南海岸的土地由印尼環境及林業部擁有,因此徵地不涉及類似雅加達-萬隆快速鐵路項目的問題。後者的路線經過雅加達東邊一些高級住宅區。

由延德納島及其他65個小島組成的寧巴爾群島共有11.8萬人口,約95%為基督教徒,主要從事漁業、種植椰樹、木材加工行業。當地缺乏電力供應,只有一個小機場,道路、網絡及手機服務匱乏。

日本國際石油開發公司佔馬塞拉項目運營權益的65%,荷蘭皇家殼牌則佔35%。Abadi氣田位於印尼與澳洲海上邊界接壤處,計劃於2027年正式開發。

Abadi氣田的證實儲量達到12.7萬億立方英呎,而概算及可能儲量則有望達到40萬億立方英呎。這比殼牌在西巴布亞省賓杜尼灣的東固項目儲量超出三倍以上。後者將於明年增設第三套液化天然氣處理流程,價值高達80億美元。

時任海洋事務統籌部部長Rizal Ramli認為,在陸上建天然氣加工廠將有助於刺激摩鹿加群島的經濟增長。這讓總統維多多最終拍板決定推翻原有的浮式液化天然氣平台的建議。

然而,分析人士指出過去10年東固項目在運營過程中並未能吸引很多相關的商業活動。

專家們認為是否能吸引投資者來到如此偏遠的地區,主要取決於天然氣的價格,然而其估算的價格甚至高於一個邊境地區綠地項目的價格。這也是為何初期會提出浮式液化天然氣平台,從而避免了管道物流及環境成本。

撰文:John Mcbeth
原文:Charges of foot-dragging hamper large Indonesian gas project
更多:https://www.asiatimes.com/lang/chinese/
相片:AFP/Olivia Rondonuwu

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