Chinese President Xi Jinping, left, with former Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan at a signing ceremony in Beijing in 2015. Photo: AFP

Armenia has long pursued a four-pronged foreign policy of managing its over-dependence on Russia the nation’s primary trade and security partner — while deepening ties with the European Union, sustaining links to the United States and developing trade with neighboring Iran.

More recently there has been an added strategic priority that consists of an uncharacteristically subtle and stealthy pursuit of engagement with China. This “eastward embrace” may seem surprising, given the disparity in size and remote connections between Armenia and China, but the strategy is very much in line with the interests of both nations.   

For landlocked Armenia, survival has traditionally meant a delicate balancing act between the West, backed by its sizeable diaspora, and Russia, which offered important security, economic and energy ties in return for accepting a place well within Moscow’s orbit. 

China recognizes that Armenia is too small and remote to be of any great significance on its own, but is a stable and promising element of a much larger landscape; the country’s position at the intersection of the Caucasus and the broader Middle East offers a pivotal bridgehead. 

Armenia has appeared on the Chinese agenda of expanding trade and infrastructure and is now part of a bigger picture of enhancing Beijing’s influence and prestige. The latter is especially important in terms of the longer-term rivalry with Russia within Eurasia.

On the geopolitical front, Armenia has been careful in cultivating China, as was seen in a five-page joint declaration concluded in March 2015 at the close of an official visit to China by then-President Serzh Sarkisian.

Reached after talks with President Xi and Premier Li Keqiang, the declaration included a clear statement of Armenia’s position regarding Taiwan, stressing that Armenia opposed the island’s independence and pledged to avoid any “official contact” with Taiwan. Armenia also agreed to support “all Chinese government efforts to unite the country”.

Belt & Road creates a new bridgehead

From an Armenian perspective, drawing closer to China offers opportunities in the future and more practical and immediate benefits. In particular, it means the country can position itself early in the scramble to be included in China’s Belt Road Initiative.

Drawing Chinese capital investment in infrastructure is already paying dividends, as evident in Armenia’s “North-South” roadway, a project launched by the Asia Development Bank that is designed to provide “inter-connectivity” by extending and modernizing the national highway network to Georgia in the north and Iran in the south.

There has also been serious progress in bilateral trade, with a 33% increase to over $604 million in 2017. At the same time, China has provided at least $50 million in economic assistance since 2012.

Much of that trade centers on rising exports to China of wine and other alcoholic beverages, as well as canned-food produce and chocolates. The Armenian government is also working to develop its information technology sector through expanded cooperation with China.

Armenian imports from China have been largely limited to electronic goods and cheap textiles, and are not expected to greatly change in the short-to-medium-term as the country focuses on exports.

The more practical immediate benefits of the relationship are derived from Armenia’s need to enhance its security, and China has become a willing partner. Initially the focus was on military education, under an agreement reached with the People’s Liberation Army in 2012. But it has been broadened to “military cooperation”, reportedly including training.

Closer defense ties, but Russia is watching

Such links have involved increasing financial support from China, in a region long dominated by the United States and Russia. Beijing gave about five million yuan (US$740,000) in annual military aid to Yerevan in 2013-2016, but the sum rose to 10 million yuan ($1.5 million) in 2017.

There has also been a series of arms deals stretching back to the late 1990s that included shipments of WM-80 rockets systems and AR1A multiple-launch rocket systems; the latter has a firing range of more than 100 kilometers. The most recent deal, in 2013, also involved a multiple-launch rocket system, this time with a range of about 128 kilometers.

For Armenia, Chinese military cooperation is driven by two factors. First, in a broader sense, it stems from the need to lessen Armenia’s dependence on Russia by spreading its options. And second, it is a response to growing Russian military ties with its rival Azerbaijan.

The Azerbaijan factor is especially sensitive for Armenia, which bemoans the rather meager benefits from its allegiance to Russia: these include being the only host of a Russian base and being the only member of the Russian-led Collective Security Treaty Organization in the region.

Dissatisfaction has grown over Russia’s deepening military ties with Azerbaijan as Moscow has become Baku’s primary arms supplier. Some 65% of Azerbaijani weapon imports came from Russia in 2013-2017, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.

It is Moscow, rather than Yerevan, Beijing, or even Washington, that may be the main obstacle to Armenia’s strategic embrace of China and pursuit of deepening military ties, if it comes to resent being upstaged by this new rival. It seems unlikely that China would seek to challenge for dominance, given its limited interests in the South Caucasus compared with Russia, Turkey and Iran, but Moscow is watching Beijing closely.

Yet this engagement with China may still work for Armenia, as ties to Beijing are still more acceptable and less threatening to Russia than any progress in Armenian relations with NATO or the United States. For the Armenian government, the over-dependence on its chief security partner Russia necessitates a course correction.

Richard Giragosian is the director of the Regional Studies Center (RSC), an independent think tank in Yerevan, Armenia. 

Join the Conversation


  1. Hi, Neat post. There is a problem with your website in internet explorer, would test this… IE still is the market leader and a good portion of people will miss your magnificent writing because of this problem.

  2. Hey! Someone in my Myspace group shared this website with us so I came to take a look. I’m definitely enjoying the information. I’m book-marking and will be tweeting this to my followers! Wonderful blog and terrific style and design.

  3. Thanks for the auspicious writeup. It actually was once a enjoyment account it.
    Look advanced to far added agreeable from you! By the
    way, how could we keep in touch?

  4. Hi there! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any issues with
    hackers? My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing a
    few months of hard work due to no back up. Do you have
    any methods to prevent hackers?

  5. Its like you read my mind! You appear to know so much about this, like you wrote the book
    in it or something. I think that you could do with
    a few pics to drive the message home a bit, but instead of
    that, this is fantastic blog. An excellent read. I’ll definitely be back.

  6. Howdy! This article could not be written much better! Looking through this post reminds me of my previous roommate!
    He always kept talking about this. I’ll forward this article to him.
    Fairly certain he’s going to have a good read. I appreciate you for sharing!

  7. I don’t even understand how I stopped up here, but I thought this post was
    great. I don’t recognise who you are however definitely you are going to a famous blogger if you happen to are not
    already. Cheers!

  8. Simply desire to say your article is as amazing. The clearness in your
    post is simply great and i could assume you’re an expert on this subject.

    Well with your permission allow me to grab your feed to keep updated with forthcoming post.
    Thanks a million and please carry on the gratifying work.
    natalielise plenty of fish

  9. Oh my goodness! Amazing article dude! Thank you, However I
    am having troubles with your RSS. I don’t know the reason why I can’t subscribe to it.
    Is there anybody having the same RSS problems?

    Anyone who knows the answer can you kindly respond?

  10. Great website you have here but I was curious about if you knew of any message boards that cover the
    same topics discussed here? I’d really like to be a part of group where I can get responses from other knowledgeable people that share the same interest.

    If you have any suggestions, please let me know. Kudos!

  11. Your style is really unique in comparison to other folks I’ve
    read stuff from. I appreciate you for posting when you’ve got the opportunity, Guess I will just book mark this web site.

  12. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you make this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you? Plz respond as I’m looking to create my own blog and would like to find out where u got this from. kudos

  13. Hey there would you mind letting me know which web host you’re utilizing? I’ve loaded your blog in 3 different internet browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot quicker then most. Can you suggest a good web hosting provider at a reasonable price? Many thanks, I appreciate it!

  14. When I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when new feedback are added- checkbox and now every time a remark is added I get 4 emails with the identical comment. Is there any approach you can remove me from that service? Thanks!

  15. Terrific post however , I was wondering if you could write a litte
    more on this topic? I’d be very thankful if you could
    elaborate a little bit further. Cheers!

  16. Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is an extremely well written article.

    I’ll be sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful
    information. Thanks for the post. I will definitely comeback.

  17. Definitely believe that which you stated. Your favorite
    reason appeared to be on the internet the easiest thing
    to be aware of. I say to you, I definitely get annoyed while people think about worries that they just do not know about.
    You managed to hit the nail upon the top as well as defined out the whole
    thing without having side effect , people can take a signal.

    Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

  18. I’d should test with you here. Which isn’t something I normally do! I enjoy reading a post that can make people think. Also, thanks for permitting me to comment!

Leave a comment